English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



“吃”鋼的細菌

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-24  【字號:     】  

  神秘的微生物令人敬畏,但又誘惑著人類對于它的探知。它無時無刻不吸引著科學家對它進行探知、發現。復雜的微生物世界給人類拋向了一個具有永恒挑戰性的命題。同時,微生物也成了人類的朋友,從我們一出生,體內就有一些微生物,它們是我們身體中非常復雜的一部分,它們與我們互動,而我們對它們卻知之甚少。

  不容小覷的力量

  作為地球上古老的生物,微生物在自然界分布極廣。無論是人跡罕至的南北極還是環境苛刻的沙漠;無論是神秘的外太空還是深邃的海底世界,都有它們的足跡。人們利用微生物來生產抗菌素、維生素等藥品,幫助人類對抗疾病;利用微生物來生產飲料,啤酒,微生物肥料、微生物殺蟲劑等產品服務工業,甚至可以生產出電池所需要的燃料解決能源短缺問題。那么是不是所有微生物都是對人類有利的?然而,答案是令人失望的。

  微生物并沒有我們想象的那么友好,在服務人類的同時,它也“吃”掉了我們的GDP。

  微生物與鋼也能產生“電火花”

  眾所周知,不是所有的微生物都對我們有利。當微生物遇到鋼材也會產生“電火花”,使得管道、海洋船舶等工業裝備受到嚴重腐蝕——微生物腐蝕(MIC)。我們先看兩個例子:

  2000年,韓國石油天然氣公司一條X65輸油管道發生腐蝕失效。調查發現管道表面覆蓋著一層黑色沉淀物,滴加鹽酸后散發出臭雞蛋氣味,表明腐蝕產物為硫化物。證實了埋地管線剝離涂層下受到了土壤中硫酸鹽還原菌 (SRB) 和產酸菌 (APB) 的腐蝕。同年,我國某型艦艇船底在下水后不到2年內就發生了多處的腐蝕穿孔。經檢測艙內積水部位單位體積內硫酸鹽還原菌SRB 數量約是舷外海水的103-104倍,說明 SRB 在艦船的艙底水中大量存在。2003年,新疆1條X52級輸油管道發生爆管泄露事件。此前該管道曾多次發生內腐蝕穿孔泄漏事故,但令人不解的是均發生在管道沿線起伏管段。事故最終調查認為該管段起伏較大,原油流量較低,管道低洼處有微量游離水或積水聚積,從而使得硫酸鹽還原菌(SRB)大量繁殖導致局部腐蝕失效。據國際腐蝕工程師協會(NACE) 調查結果顯示,2013 年美國的腐蝕成本已經達到2.5 萬億美元,超過GDP 的3.4%。而其中由微生物腐蝕造成的損失約占20%。可見,微生物已經在慢慢地吃掉我們的“GDP”。

  微生物腐蝕防治

  腐蝕是一種常見的自然現象。大多數的腐蝕都是物質與環境相互作用的電化學過程。那么微生物是怎樣參與腐蝕過程的呢?科學家研究表明微生物參與下的腐蝕金屬表面附著具有腐蝕能力的生物膜,在生物膜中微生物分泌的生物活性酶的作用下,細菌的代謝產物硫化物與金屬陽極溶解產生的亞鐵離子反應生成鐵硫化物,從而參與并加速腐蝕過程。

  目前科學家對于微生物腐蝕的機理也有了初步認識,并提出了多種措施防治微生物腐蝕。例如:

  (1)表面技術:研發抗生物污染的有機涂層,已經廣泛地用于埋地管線、建筑物外墻、海洋結構材料的防護;

  (2)電化學保護:采用更低的陰極保護電位來控制微生物引起的鋼鐵厭氧腐蝕,同時陰極保護與有機涂層聯合使用也有效地彌補了有機涂層的缺欠;

  (3)生物抑制劑:目前采用殺菌劑注入工業水系統中,也可以作為防治細菌腐蝕的方法;

  (4)實時監測:大多數的腐蝕都可以通過早期監測來采取控制措施從而減緩腐蝕,避免事故發生。因此對腐蝕過程中微生物的生長,數量,生物膜的厚度等進行監測,也有助于我們采取控制措施。

  通過上述案例,我們看到微生物不容小覷的力量,只有了解微生物腐蝕,控制微生物腐蝕,利用微生物腐蝕,這樣才能為工業裝備保駕護航。而微生物腐蝕的復雜性注定控制腐蝕過程是長期斗爭的過程,關于微生物腐蝕,國內外科學家們一直在行動,齊心協力,貢獻才智,讓我們與微生物腐蝕宣戰,抗爭到底!

  作者:韋博鑫,中國科學院金屬研究所




(責任編輯:侯茜)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

七星彩票www.0qxc.com www.843223.com | www.32450.cc | www.662772.com | www.871314.com | www.678.in | www.123547.com | www.631030.com | www.1926.club | www.009742.com | www.012356.com | 950846.com | www.258561.com | www.445541.com | www.883436.com | www.55uk.com | www.1666.wang | www.715003.com | 13e彩票www.656270.com | www.lu95.com | www.537267.com | www.25661.cc | www.590083.com | www.di75.com | www.e82.top | www.035665.com | 155083.com | www.987398.com | www.87246.com | lq05.com | 易彩网www.99638m.com | 947766.com | www.966725.com | www.373798.com | 790109.com | www.17856.cc | www.184133.com | www.592515.com | www.995914.com | www.002646.cc | www.855332.com | www.un14.com | www.261.cc | 500134.com | 087064.com | www.041010.com | www.1417.net | www.628610.com | www.548577.com | www.64608.cc | 416377.com | www.791641.com | 彩票A8www.56718.com | 66hg.com | www.cai7895.com | 幸运众彩www.108129.com | www.830852.com | www.118096.com | www.b18.club | www.3tj.com | www.11lq.com | 033476.com | www.730872.com | www.770104.com | www.31318.cc | 108046.com | www.501229.com | www.422200.cc | www.cp6269.com | www.zi90.com | www.am25.cc | www.391517.com | 447821.com | www.014188.com | 739030.com | 166678.com | 496098.com | www.205803.com | www.279829.com | www.134850.com | www.369584.com | www.87918.com | www.128195.com | 196237.com | www.126871.com | www.748368.com | 528972.com | 293719.com | www.cx92.com | www.24ul.com | www.324022.com | www.191497.com | www.272050.com | www.443961.com | www.788527.com | 574433.com | www.560101.com | 866052.com | www.62182.com | 7027.cc | www.3984.biz | www.43277.cc | www.828198.com | www.144785.com | www.947.live | www.187654.com | www.019123.com | www.506357.com | www.225201.com | www.466031.com | www.330568.com | www.1180.xyz | 055907.com | www.z20.cc | www.049910.com | www.184243.com | www.312973.com | www.639530.com | www.521656.com | www.880956.com | 228574.com | www.71zi.com | www.9743.xyz | www.719615.com | www.89wb.com | www.71sd.com | www.281915.com | www.656023.com | www.tr29.com | www.842339.com | www.128314.com | www.284558.com | 954923.com | www.oc79.com | www.231608.com | www.376621.com | www.137605.com | www.585882.com | al49.com | www.832.cc | www.49094.com | www.87994.com | www.008642.com | www.36622.com | www.54863.com | www.42963.com | www.151302.com | www.383959.com | www.458507.com | www.767031.com | 966209.com | 664601.com | www.08ho.com | www.302200.com | www.72xq.com | www.396459.com | 274422.com | 574945.com | www.443224.com | www.83960.com | www.654856.com | www.504496.com | www.796009.com | www.839727.com | www.hw70.com | www.7444.org | www.818691.com | www.816011.com | www.865574.com | www.hn15.com | www.947262.com | 054485.com | 858274.com | www.26vo.com | www.287434.com | 佰萬彩票www.982pk.com | www.j99.in | www.39699.cc | www.032970.com | www.159260.com | 927103.com | 600万彩票www.187393.com | www.90wx.com | www.8301.pw | www.54324.com | www.650881.com | www.333403.cc | www.559038.com | www.ls79.com | www.66iz.com | www.266033.com | www.802033.com | www.2364.org | www.104.la | www.63660.com | www.5094.xyz | www.211274.com | 多乐彩票www.364747.com | www.32iw.com | www.1955.xyz | www.236181.com | www.246468.com | www.514344.com | 239762.cc | www.022656.com | www.1803.vip | www.178296.com | www.542080.com | www.573313.com | 190221.com | 902323.com | www.014602.com | www.552047.com | www.563701.com | www.5227.wang | 393612.com | 278496.com | www.820698.com | 870660.com | www.oj01.com | www.938121.com | www.31676.cc | www.087316.com | www.243456.com | www.450863.com | www.206971.com | www.537200.com | 752910.com | www.20pj.cc | www.96ro.com | www.233674.com | 570529.com | www.13gj.com | 236154.com | 265896.com | www.680797.com | www.033719.com | 568036.com | www.876665.com | 294216.com | www.017331.com | www.87642.com | www.4735.top | 871192.com | www.011865.com | www.043311.com | www.830576.cc | www.12994.com | www.31891.com | www.83861.cc | www.406460.com | 883131.com | www.860860.cc | 285670.com | www.28557.com | www.59733.com | www.886382.com | www.972101.com | www.378313.com | www.25862.cc | www.wc57.com | www.299540.com | www.089056.com | www.rl06.com | www.1165.vip | www.tc64.com | www.954978.com | 彩61www.645326.com | www.033881.cc | www.45654.com | 519125.com | www.776473.com | www.386937.com | 388512.com | 954275.com | www.527560.com | www.188797.com | www.2xa.cc | www.222262.cc | 644725.com | 9163.com | www.796.tv | www.359128.com | www.758634.com | www.t72.biz | www.254763.com | www.368736.com | www.589967.com | 110132.com | 494234.com | www.974599.com | www.761315.com | 784591.com | 088798.com | www.uj96.com | www.983212.com | www.709675.com | www.92755.cc | www.37fk.com | www.0941.me | www.130867.com | www.395123.com | www.595705.com | www.64iy.com | www.583732.com | www.886414.com | www.880986.com | www.4vm.com | www.l47.net | www.3995.in | www.003952.com | www.081096.com | www.571091.com | www.223586.com | www.2572.win | www.236883.com | www.56fv.com | www.970846.com | www.503231.com | www.6879.win | 785013.com | 全民汇彩票www.52303z.com | www.560626.com | www.973908.com | www.32375.com | 830131.com | 凤凰Vwww.www.fh7557.com | www.42258.com | www.380175.com | www.1725.vip | 815836.com | www.898118.com | www.107578.com | www.72893.com | www.786319.com | 264354.com | www.456841.com | www.2899.cn | 017196.com | 380933.com | 05901.cc | www.144208.com | www.862026.com | 731347.com | www.208913.com | www.33118.com | www.3878.club | www.43367.com | www.454343.com | www.yk61.com | www.956709.com | www.019148.com | www.578188.com | 8624.cc | www.59ni.com | 012048.com | 06526.com | www.392748.com | www.848143.com | www.062842.com | www.jf16.com | www.645362.com | www.578327.com | www.3088.la | www.219379.com | www.350339.com | www.751089.com | www.730961.com | www.659530.com | 872755.com | www.139334.com | www.053330.com | www.cai5777.com | www.395612.com | www.cai6567.com | www.788540.com | 54420.cc | www.374901.com | www.982610.com | www.473573.com | www.lk91.com | www.88wa.com | www.l12.biz | www.293219.com | www.012323.com | 003490.com | www.719689.com | www.9224.com | www.084771.com | www.323311.com | www.432877.com | 594189.com | 669742.com | 体彩网www.aa3890.com | www.cp606.cc | www.ur82.com | www.eg44.com | www.cp540.com | www.955.xyz | 208917.com | 022607.com | www.655483.com | www.47316.com | www.1639.in | www.5357.cm | www.878624.com | www.ui.com | 幸运众彩www.108075.com | www.1225.club | www.974408.com | www.831.cc | www.ca03.com | www.921037.com | www.640081.com | www.087031.com | www.946963.com | www.699607.com | www.370197.com | www.730778.com | www.157298.com | www.268078.com | www.090972.com | www.23495.com | www.5069.cm | www.1947.net | www.064779.com | www.88277.com | www.865868.com | www.312906.com | www.345222.cc | www.416114.com | www.2763.top | 407945.com | www.731250.com | www.021612.com | 746451.cc | 177184.com | www.510476.com | www.92cz.cc | 802823.com | www.913087.com | www.062852.com | www.bang | www.65of.com | www.670295.com | 613859.com | 873654.com | www.674753.com | www.61061.com | www.jm56.cc | www.3943.cn | www.2668.pw | www.83477.cc | www.335576.com | www.214932.com | www.140102.com | www.889073.com | www.749663.com | www.583839.com | 302759.com | 392592.com | www.69re.cc | www.53699.cc | www.342548.com | www.533315.com | www.390642.com | www.616958.com | www.776120.com | www.655032.com | www.492077.com | www.303173.com | www.266068.com | www.654063.com | www.943320.com | 818合彩www.www.8000hc.com | www.ob93.com | www.x96.me | www.ja28.com | www.5380.cm | www.210292.com | www.51296.com | www.156789.cc | www.404344.com | www.792446.com | www.874464.com | 博友彩www.388453.com | www.3500.wang | www.449400.com | 38128.com | www.709436.com | www.9684.loan | 249000.com | www.566121.com | www.102576.com | www.221481.com | www.270776.com | www.505227.com | 237256.com | www.813430.com | www.175659.com | www.080550.com | www.fz85.com | www.887319.com | 952392.com | www.869051.com | www.675377.com | www.8192.org | www.86338.cc | www.838701.com | www.176358.com | 886991.com | 115202.com | 744710.com | www.75724.com | www.310152.com | www.869282.com | 562889.com | 皇家彩票www.hj8987.com | www.984726.com | www.412500.com | www.35117.cc | www.662326.com | 536047.com | www.72dy.cc | www.62589.com | www.846211.com | www.207596.com | www.643534.com | 大玩家彩票www.84499m.com | 740741.cc | www.691921.com | www.120090.com | www.4903.cm | www.737865.com | www.996680.com | www.917506.com | www.887868.com | 581875.com | www.12ru.com | www.cf21.cc | www.zu95.com | www.246.vip | www.21046.cc | www.126099.com | www.75yi.com | www.578472.com | www.366022.com | www.223503.com | www.763661.com | 417682.com | www.68917.com | www.33923.cc | www.83872.cc | www.12xf.com | www.38135.cc | www.15212.cc | www.19787.com | www.184918.com | www.62430.cc | www.sy32.com | www.94pw.com | www.4876.org | www.571.space | www.22470.com | www.725.com | www.14599.cc | www.11709.com | www.071125.com | www.127847.com | www.2803.in | www.ju25.com | 783701.com | 643607.com | www.y35.cn | www.988012.com | www.84fv.com | www.21273.cc | www.948149.com | 570976.com | www.952204.com | www.397315.com | www.642338.com | www.371692.com | 739114.com | 266217.com | www.301840.com | 299974.com | 429163.com | www.r06.cn | 亿彩www.6832l.com | www.19ne.com | www.oj99.com | www.28722.cc | www.93yy.com | www.jp6.com | 790102.com | 079083.com | 295312.com | www.975881.com | www.733207.com | www.739342.com | www.947362.com | www.639345.com | www.av49.com | 790391.com | 100458.com | www.0187.com | iq56.com | www.062815.com | www.307323.com | www.191031.com | www.207416.com | www.170207.com | www.596051.com | www.972882.com | www.874361.com | www.ec84.com | www.956644.com | www.383753.com | www.1517.cc | www.514198.com | www.fg5.cc | 713844.com | www.g46.cc | www.020923.com | www.09595.com | www.1421.xyz | www.437618.com | www.354263.com | www.201045.com | www.072883.com | www.003040.com | www.55087.com | www.45022.com | www.25923.cc | www.198.top | www.50ki.com | www.32673.cc | www.9115.biz | www.7bz.com | www.io25.com | 500彩票www.401267.com | 480300.com | 722506.com | www.869980.com | www.874440.com | www.693088.cc | www.404518.com | www.625355.com | www.872547.com | 701799.com | www.866167.com | www.613516.com | www.380272.com | www.860187.com | www.668226.com | www.ne56.com | www.965755.com | www.116931.com | www.712615.com | www.656667.com | www.905768.com | www.278708.com | www.315826.com | www.nf06.com | www.259886.com | www.77854.com | www.100000.com | www.55818.com | www.29294.com | www.07rl.com | tengbo8.com | www.954851.com | www.881748.com | www.974069.com | www.638851.com | www.702101.com | 974076.com | www.273390.com | www.cp5298.com | www.637744.com | www.167227.com | 亚洲彩www.68568t.com | www.590223.com | www.5097.cn | www.981920.com | www.450199.com | www.62ow.com | www.863798.com | www.657021.com | www.267156.com | www.he11.com | 917506.com | www.369891.com | www.22935.cc | 755018.com | www.464813.com | www.1453.blue | www.979495.com | www.147012.com | www.zd27.com | www.721929.com | www.22046.com | 587157.com | www.492308.com | www.57xn.com | www.880108.com | www.332877.com | www.9560.cc | 256751.com | www.373950.com | www.76tr.com | www.813247.com | www.53228.com | tz46.com | www.357868.com | www.7025.cm | 455114.com | www.529092.com | www.nt55.com | 903781.com | 843432.com | www.744747.com | www.512632.com | www.ku8.com | www.cp2626.com | 358368.com | 68665.com | 23815.com | www.870386.com | www.936529.com | www.694200.com | www.998790.com | www.836859.com | www.963171.com | 398345.com | 1139.pw | 432868.com | www.354869.com | www.jz37.com | www.868947.com | www.259944.com | www.k39.cm | 055542.com | www.515599.com | www.94hp.com | 764036.com | www.760276.com | www.010503.com | 172102.com | www.747058.com | www.26545.com | 467221.com | www.201577.com | www.98fn.com | www.963051.com | www.201453.com | www.ln37.com | www.753194.com | www.114523.com | 761472.com | www.537256.com | www.79wh.com | 029172.com | www.526795.com | www.3753.pw | www.358618.com | www.514514.com | www.584177.com | www.822336.com | www.902921.com | www.850310.com | www.988735.com | www.771080.com | www.3119.pw | www.95vl.com | www.qu39.com | www.237431.com | www.53577.cc | 667715.com | 757057.com | www.427654.com | www.zx82.com | www.903099.com | 525046.com | www.760769.com | www.767871.com | www.099801.com | www.cf30.com | www.708093.com | www.01299.cc | 75qu.cc | www.683392.com | www.05051.com | www.pj39.com | www.188902.com | www.7711.com | www.cp2005.com | www.0578.cn | www.07iw.com | www.57tv.com | www.128406.com | www.40397.com | www.4772.biz | www.056231.com | www.29871.cc | www.982.cn | www.4707.com | www.75621.cc | www.70507.com | www.469699.com | www.91838.com | www.387738.com | www.522893.com | 7024.cc | www.481718.com | 福利彩票www.99677f.com | si08.com | 553308.com | www.964021.com | 007778.com | www.vf01.com | 645776.com | www.811208.com | www.585925.com | www.109251.com | www.895.xyz | www.6561.top | 好彩www.60123t.com | www.984724.com | www.499114.com | www.035686.com | www.13537.cc | www.8892.site | www.120272.com | www.9dy.com | www.110220.com | www.100025.com | www.44432.cc | www.x18.ren | 589546.com | www.67vt.com | 632890.com | www.983920.com | www.445319.com | 057207.com | www.18736.com | www.284156.com | www.23832.cc | www.94ao.com | 081662.com | www.838491.com | www.826759.com | www.654574.com | www.165696.com | www.29209.com | www.aa91.com | 247008.com | www.609390.com | www.386651.com | www.039898.com | www.521300.com | www.284180.com | www.491311.com | www.632895.com | 大赢家彩票网www.930155.com | ou11.cc | 350729.com | 449333.com | www.32bi.com | 143591.com | www.735080.com | www.253131.com | www.05007.com | www.8799.shop | 500彩票www.26299t.com | cp414.com | www.765338.com | www.715182.com | www.256827.com | www.57715.cc | www.74566.cc | www.34327.com | www.77lt.cc | www.ia98.com | 971558.com | www.864211.com | www.571751.com | www.506871.com | www.115212.com | www.119630.com | www.4720.win | 971937.com | www.962493.com | www.680579.com | www.280368.com | www.27122.cc | www.c1.la | www.ah23.com | 570022.com | www.715692.com | www.309288.com | www.96634.com | www.d11.xyz | 659063.com | www.869787.com | www.699650.com | www.685858.com | www.229812.com | www.27873.cc | www.zs71.com | 998225.com | www.730278.com | www.254185.com | www.00210.com | www.959.hk | 8号彩票www.60108s.com | www.991782.com | www.530128.com | www.059400.com | www.12as.com | 423337.com | www.713058.com | www.227253.com | www.68881.cc | www.xz24.com | 579064.com | www.872012.com | www.597608.com | www.130936.com | www.6383.me | 761053.com | www.911246.com | www.850441.com | www.507219.com | www.161696.com | www.9294.top | 彩票5www.202703.com | www.961424.com | www.556643.com | www.133877.com | www.4561.pw | www.hu84.com | kk33.cc | www.822042.com | www.306999.cc | www.35351.cc | 博汇www.717772.com | www.970509.com | www.490888.cc | www.024886.com | www.404.cx | 456686.com | www.866040.com | www.753918.com | www.514760.com | www.184546.com | www.3833.red | 994618.com | www.799063.com | www.565770.com | www.007935.com | www.68hm.cc | 913009.com | www.674710.com | www.331774.com | www.5376.top | 72449.com | www.682999.com | www.094502.com | www.yp09.com | www.947378.com | www.322620.com | www.1309.pw | 955117.com | www.750378.com | www.347543.com | www.365515.cc | www.3091.cc | 940096.com | www.741500.com | www.252178.com | www.537952.com | www.007744.com | www.3982.vip | www.306157.com | www.46qn.com | www.702928.com | www.0356.pw | www.994296.com | www.010056.com | cp466.com | www.218098.com | www.528376.com | www.613671.com | www.813146.com | www.906352.com | www.629572.com | www.451041.com | www.501869.com | www.602277.com | www.369544.com | www.129503.com | www.8987.cc | www.yo73.com | 078122.com | 473077.com | www.807146.com | 634838.com | www.278496.com | www.jj33.com | www.617011.com | www.1362.pw | www.872709.com | www.053455.com | 004819.com | www.199961.com | www.559585.com | www.029996.com | www.01ij.com | js12345.com | www.835464.com | www.630635.com | www.338895.com | www.270065.com | www.17066.com | www.s00.top | www.mj88.com | 0020.pw | www.786471.com | www.343735.com | www.102416.com | www.1789.biz | www.7332.xyz | www.sr1.com | 2857.biz | www.698971.com | www.308732.com | www.521259.com | www.623687.com | www.381577.com | www.177187.com | www.60013.com | www.639214.com | www.624718.com | www.662854.com | www.580551.com | www.82211.cc | www.fn16.com | www.660379.com | www.331493.com | www.184340.com | www.695.in | www.971264.com | www.006473.com | 397.cc | www.130425.com | 974756.com | www.424999.com | www.ea43.com | www.644774.com | www.1732.space | www.921793.com | www.50844.com | 384506.com | www.172535.com | 561705.com | www.444964.com | www.yw34.com | www.649689.com | www.16089.com | www.245000.com | www.81318.cc | www.92110.com | www.007009.com | www.90mp.com | 500万彩票www.39500j.com | 378348.com | www.781094.com | www.888813.com | www.918005.com | www.527931.com | www.417718.com | www.285869.com | www.332909.com | www.345378.com | www.213611.com | www.019373.com | www.69096.com | www.35750.com | www.5457.pw | www.nn78.com | 凤凰彩票www.3479f.com | 592329.com | www.916014.com | www.855073.com | www.520448.com | www.250454.com | www.028922.com | www.035660.com | www.5286.wang | www.rz34.com | lx14.com | 484819.cc | www.804129.com | www.686681.com | www.378893.com | www.356448.com | www.358103.com | www.161069.com | www.39912.com | www.01jb.com | 896481.com | www.947454.com | www.591386.com | www.232772.com | www.13923.com | www.4380.vip | 500彩票www.535267.com | 网易彩票www.335037.com | 7124.biz | www.802009.com | www.602277.com | www.682804.com | www.329356.com | www.113818.com | www.2780.vip | www.rr59.com | 503939.com | www.851512.com | www.868368.com | www.622939.com | www.347576.com | www.zd33.com | www.533315.com | 彩客网www.535059.com | www.772452.com | www.005293.com | www.2236.vip | 大赢家彩票平台www.221075.com | 440169.com | www.674499.com | www.657692.com | www.592983.com | www.308893.com | www.005059.com | www.336223.com | www.133428.com | www.21699.cc | www.rt53.com | 964821.com | 227345.com | www.737744.com | www.387759.com | www.456320.com | www.168386.com | www.166059.com | www.304068.com | www.55642.com | www.74ku.com | www.gd3.com | 128493.com | www.805788.com | www.441174.com | www.517660.com | www.148169.com | www.037376.com | www.949.biz | www.3636.hk | 彩票驿站www.621416.com | 447594.com | www.749663.com | www.351848.com | www.274687.com | www.61299.com | www.42cx.com | 盈彩www.yc7701.com | 948738.com | www.903911.com | www.511077.com | www.172848.com | www.024199.com | www.480.in | www.xa98.cc | 254393.com | www.885027.com | www.627068.com | www.303735.com | www.88418.cc | www.23ov.com | 796544.com | www.960536.com | www.659479.com | www.399118.com | www.243563.com | www.66867.com | www.73em.com | www.hd44.com | 028659.com | www.838063.com | www.706170.com | www.318343.com | www.57522.cc | www.1113.date | www.324.tv | 500彩票www.769588.com | 703896.com | www.666169.com | www.200284.com | www.005097.com | www.30855.com | www.rs70.com | 973663.com | 127597.com | www.813241.com | www.739403.com | www.384655.com | www.135990.com | www.35340.com | www.6879.top | 532852.com | www.995540.com | www.587859.com | 160279.com | www.823661.com | www.381138.com | www.102672.com | www.91251.com | www.0496.xyz | www.uw93.com | 242867.com | www.890305.com | www.402203.com | www.167279.com | www.32275.com | www.oi96.com | 5018.wang | www.863710.com | www.604563.com | www.326563.com | www.81154.com | www.6967.shop | www.cai5855.com | 055589.com | www.953702.com | www.522083.com | www.227623.com | www.4844.cc | 全民乐彩票www.2934a.com | www.981981.cc | www.582721.com | www.153109.com | www.8118.com | 新世界www.126788a.com | www.983994.com | www.603690.com | www.199083.com | www.8540.loan | www.90ow.com | www.520024.com | www.903216.com | www.573394.cc | www.128412.com | www.030025.com | www.4311.vip | 570672.com | www.969892.com | www.562327.com | www.414155.com | www.280800.com | www.155889.com | www.145718.com | www.30388.com | www.1800.top | www.kh2.com | 398234.com | www.662235.com | www.503712.com | www.281681.com | www.44252.com | www.od03.com | 791013.com | www.890073.com | www.483234.com | www.473755.com | www.670896.com | www.255974.com | www.687569.com | www.298862.com | www.87607.com | www.07862.com | www.cp3232.com | 637580.com | www.753145.com | www.254257.com | www.36691.com | www.68tv.com | 919278.com | 459077.com | www.765446.com | www.347836.com | www.058429.com | www.13603.com | www.hj93.com | 523150.com | www.09oc.com | 299031.com | www.866059.com | www.556894.com | www.099080.com | www.90ca.cc | 741393.com | www.877093.com | www.639764.com | www.479878.com | www.039661.com | www.41wk.com | 214207.com | www.894633.com | www.400844.com | www.093550.com | www.0332.cn | 九州彩票www.6769l.com | www.989522.com | www.552127.com | www.630295.com | www.340466.com | www.362032.com | www.161098.com | www.8107.vip | www.174.bid | 914941.com | www.880891.com | www.449156.com | www.356210.com | www.02232.com | www.cp9363.com | 120234.cc | www.721157.com | www.227363.com | www.6869.biz | www.502496.com | www.880579.com | www.611242.com | www.658342.com | www.594608.com | www.706895.com | www.266049.com | www.163746.com | www.9695.biz | www.hv68.com | 985490.com | www.727308.com | www.307111.cc | www.118825.com | www.494.tv | 福彩www.15355d.com | www.967037.com | www.530403.cc | www.313342.com | www.096061.com | www.83ak.com | 23922.com | www.770357.com | www.410754.com | www.088256.com | www.54878.com | www.25nx.com | 488418.com | www.768211.com | www.311388.com | www.011019.com | www.037653.com | www.27tx.com | 285770.com | www.916037.com | www.428506.com | www.010107.com | www.d73.com | www.nv69.com | 824931.com | www.663941.com | www.852837.com | www.579523.com | www.130882.com | www.432002.com | www.065308.com | www.73ui.com | 477895.com | www.801055.com | www.322357.com | www.32532.com | www.56pf.com | 610578.com | www.771441.com | www.299115.cc | www.38884.cc | www.vt51.com | 576984.com | www.645318.com | www.440411.com | www.006933.com | www.0871.pw | 环球彩票www.660686.com | 443882.com | www.656127.com | www.474178.com | www.688549.com | www.214546.com | www.9655.pw | 9740